Wednesday, March 4, 2015

04/03/2015: Plant based health promoters for secure shrimp farming

by Tilman Wilke, Susanne Kirwan (Dr. Eckel GmbH, Niederzissen, Germany), and Niti Chuchird, 
Hataitip Niyamosatha (Aquaculture Business Research Center, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand)    

First published in International Aquafeed, January-February 2015


Dr Eckel, a leading supplier for research-based functional feed additives is about to launch its Shrimp product line in Thailand and South-East Asia in 2015. New research results from Thailand corroborate the strength of these future standards in plant-based health promoters.
Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS) is still a big problem in shrimp production in South-East Asia as well as in Latin America. EMS experts know that classical approaches like antibiotics and chemical disinfection are no solution: 


“Disinfectants are only good for a couple of minutes, so they are not the answer. Antibiotics are not the answer, either. The vibrios are there, and we have to keep them in check with balanced systems,” says Scott Horton. 


Centrepieces of such balanced systems are farms with strictly managed biosecurity and well-considered genetic resources and breeding practices. Another task is to strengthen the natural defence mechanism of the animals in order to cope with any kind of disease pressure. Functional feed additives are one way to fulfill this task. 


Demand for natural solutions

For several years customers and retailers in Europe have become more and more sensitive to the abundance of antibiotic drugs usage in animal production systems. Consumers and policymakers oppose unjustified use of antibiotic drugs either from an individual health perspective or from a global sustainability perspective. Shrimp farming enterprises who want to keep pace with that development have to change their practices and have to look for alternative ways to cope with disease pressure in intensive shrimp farming systems.


http://issuu.com/international_aquafeed/docs/iaf1501_w1/50
R&D efforts come to fruition
Dr Eckel was one of the first European feed additive producers who expanded its business to aquaculture and aquafeed industries. The success stories in livestock feed was encouragement to transfer the natural nutraceutical concepts to aquafeed applications. Hence, the target was to develop a functional feed additive that has positive effects on growth and immune defence of Pacific White Shrimp. 


After two years of research and development Dr Eckel is proud to reap the fruits of its labours. In 2014, the Dr Eckel research partners of the Aquaculture Business Research Centre at Kasetsart University in Bangkok reported a breakthrough. The tested phytogenic feed additives proved to have positive effects on growth, survival and immune response of shrimp. 


In a series of tank trial experiments at Kasetsart University the effects of dietary supplementation of phytogenic feed additives was evaluated at different inclusion rates (400 ppm and 800 ppm) on growth, survival, intestinal bacteria, immune responses and tolerance to Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Postlarvae 12 (PL12) were kept in 500-litre tanks with seawater of 20-25 ppt salinity and controlled water temperature of 29+ 1°C. PL12 were stocked at a density of 50 PL per tank (100 PL/m2). In the growth experiment shrimp were fed for 60 days, the challenge experiment lasted 30 days, with Vibrio being added before stocking and at day 14 of the experiment. Each feeding group was carried out with four replicates.


Increased body weight gain

The Dr Eckel feed additive enhanced the growth rate of shrimp in laboratory condition in a dose-dependent manner. After 60 days of dietary administration, shrimp with 800 ppm inclusion rate showed the highest average body weight of 3.48 ± 0.18 g, followed by the 400 ppm group with 3.42 ± 0.22 g. Shrimp from the control group showed the lowest average body weight of 2.64 ± 0.43 g. These differences were statistically different at a p-level of five percent. The researchers presume that the feed additive improved digestibility of nutrients leading to higher feed efficiency and faster body weight gain.  This hypothesis is underpinned by the improved feed conversion ratio observed in the treatment groups.


http://issuu.com/international_aquafeed/docs/iaf1501_w1/50
Better survival rates after Vibrio challenge
Survival rates did not differ between groups in the growth experiments. However, in the challenge experiment shrimp from the group fed with Dr Eckel feed additives at 800 ppm and at 400 ppm had significantly higher survival rates (78 percent and 67 percent respectively) compared to shrimp in the control group (64 percent) when challenged with a virulent strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. 


Researchers marvel at immunological effects
During the experiments, special emphasis was put on immunological effects as one of the target mechanism of the novel feed additive. The tested feed additive improved shrimp immune response, which led to higher survival rates in the challenge experiment. In the course of their immunological studies the researchers measured the ratio of hemocytes cells that do phagocytosis to the total number of hemocytes. 


Phagocytosis is the central and terminal mechanism of the immune system to seek and destroy pathogenic bacteria or infected cells. The share of hemocytes that perform phagocytosis was significantly larger in the treatment group (23 percent) than in the control group (17 percent). Additionally shrimp in the treatment group had twice as much hemocytes compared to shrimp of the control group (4.4 x 106 versus 1.9 x 106 cells / ml).  

When the researchers examined the hepatopancreas of the challenged animals they discovered a spectacular histopathological pattern: Shrimp from the treatment group had less cell necrosis in the hepatopancreas compared to other groups (Figure 2). That means that the phytogenic feed additive from Dr. Eckel took a cell-protective effect in the hepatopancreas of shrimp. 


Modes of action under investigation

Although the biological effects are proven with scientific methods, the molecular pathway of these effects is still under investigation. The active ingredients in the feed additives are plant substances and plant extracts that feature highest levels of flavonoids and polyphenols. These substances are highly potent nutraceuticals that act as antioxidant, free radical scavenger, anti-inflammatory agent and immune system modulators.


Implications for shrimp farmers and shrimp feed producers

With the new shrimp-adapted versions of his natural phytogenic feed additives Dr Eckel delivers powerful tools that assure high production and low mortality in intensive shrimp production. The proven effects on growth, survival rate and immune response will make them building blocks of a sustainable and balanced shrimp farming system. 

Feed mills’ purchasers will be glad to hear that these feed additives from Dr Eckel are heat-stable and can be ground or even pulverised, making them suitable for extrusion and micro diet formulation. And they work in low concentrations – leaving enough space for nutritional ingredients.


Read the magazine HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

Tyson company profile


http://www.tysonanimalnutrition.com/

Tyson Animal Nutrition Group is a leading producer of 100 percent chicken-based protein meals, chicken fats and wet pet ingredients. Our experience, knowledge, commitment to quality and strong customer relationships have made us one of the most respected names in animal nutrition.

Tyson's vertically-integrated structure gives us control over all stages of the life cycle of our chickens, from hatching-egg production to distributing the finished product. And because all of our raw materials come from USDA-inspected processing plants, our ingredients are consistent, traceable and to your specifications.

Our sales and support Team Members welcome the opportunity to partner with you and meet your needs for high-quality ingredients. Learn more about our products or speak to one of our sales managers today.

Read more HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

04/03/2015: Mass fish deaths in Singapore: Lab test sheds further light on algal bloom

Laboratory tests of a seawater sample taken off Pasir Ris have zeroed in on the type of algae that wiped out massive quantities of farmed and wild fish in recent days, Channel News Asia reports.

The species of algae behind the mass fish deaths off Pasir Ris likely belongs to the Gymnodinium group. It is suspected to be Gymnodinium mikimotoi, according to the experts at DHI Water & Environment, but the exact species can only be confirmed through further genetic tests. Gymnodinium mikimotoi, also known as Karenia mikimotoi, is not toxic to humans, but has been associated with massive kills of wild and farmed fishes in Japan and Korea.
 

http://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/singapore/mass-fish-deaths-lab-test/1693212.html
The Singapore publication TODAY commissioned the laboratory test on Tuesday (March 3) using a water sample provided by a fish farmer operating off Pasir Ris. The sample was taken last Saturday when most affected fish farmers reported the sudden deaths of their stocks.

The test showed concentrations of the algae at 88,529 cells per millilitre – a “very, very high” concentration, according to Dr Hans Eikaas, head of environmental technology and chemistry at DHI, a not-for-profit group offering consultancy and water-modelling services.

Concentrations above 10,000 cells per millilitre are considered a full algal bloom by any international standard, he said. Seawater in normal conditions contain 200 to 300 cells per millilitre and comprise 100 or more different plankton species. Dr Eikaas said the algae bloom was the main cause of the fish deaths, with the algae likely clogging up the gills of the fish.

But ammonia in the seawater probably magnified the scale of fish deaths. Ammonia is a waste product of fish, and is also produced when bacteria decomposes organic matter without oxygen. More ammonia is produced when water is warm, and when there is more organic matter, such as when algae dies. In gas form, it is toxic to fish and can cause convulsions and death, said Dr Eikaas.

Water rich in ammonia and nitrogen is advantageous to algae in the Gymnodinium group. Warm water, which Singapore has seen in recent weeks, also stresses fish out. These factors mean “multiple blows” dealt to the marine life, Dr Eikaas said.

“I would assume ammonia building up could have caused sub-lethal toxicity to the fish – mainly, their gills get inflamed. Then algae doubles every 24 hours … (and the deaths) appear like a sudden event,” he explained. The algae would have taken about a week to bloom to the level shown in the lab test, he added.


Read more HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

04/03/2015: Portland Bight, Jamaica: fish biomass extremely low


A 2014 Coral Reef Assessment on the Portland Bight Protected Area (PBPA) has revealed that while coral reefs are in a fairly good condition, the fish biomass in the area is extremely low, The Jamaica Gleaner reports.

Dr Suzanne Palmer, visiting researcher who was speaking with The Gleaner following the presentation of the coral reef survey conducted by the University of the West Indies recently, said more needs to be done in restoring fish population to ensure a sustainable fisheries industry.

http://jamaica-gleaner.com/article/news/20150304/portland-bight-fish-biomass-extremely-low

"At the regional level, except for the surgeonfish, fish biomass on the Portland Bight coral reefs is low to extremely low, in all surveyed fish groups," she said.

"The densities of parrot fish, surgeonfish and grunt on the Portland Bight reefs are substantially higher than regional averages, but densities of snapper and jack were below average, and grouper were absent," Palmer continued.

"From the survey, we are finding out there was quite a lot of fishes, but they are all fairly small. So the biomass is very low," she said.


Read more HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

04/03/2015: The Pacific islands ‘tuna cartel’ is boosting jobs by watching fish

I met Ali on a flight from Fiji to Funafuti, an atoll in the tiny Pacific island nation of Tuvalu, Matthew Dornan writes for The Conversation.

He was on his way home from Korea, having completed four months as a fisheries observer on a Korean tuna fishing vessel. Sitting across from Ali was another observer, also on his way home. He had been away for longer still (five months), aboard a Spanish vessel staffed by Ecuadorian crew, and was flying back from Kirimati island, part of another tiny Pacific nation, Kiribati.
 

http://theconversation.com/the-pacific-islands-tuna-cartel-is-boosting-jobs-by-watching-fish-38177

Ali is one of 50 Tuvaluan fisheries observers whose job it is to monitor the activities of fishing vessels from distant nations such as China, Japan, Korea, the United States, Taiwan, and the European Union. These vessels pay for the privilege of fishing in Tuvalu’s waters. As one of the Parties to the Nauru Agreement – along with Papua New Guinea, Kiribati, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Solomon Islands, the Marshall Islands, Nauru, and Palau – Tuvalu’s licence fees are set as part of the Vessel Day Scheme.

Vessels pay for the days in which they are allowed to fish, with (tradable) days allocated to PNA member countries. Benchmark fees were US$6,000 (A$7660) per day in 2013 (three times higher than in 2009), and have risen to US$8,000 as of 1 January 2015.

The scheme is controversial in some circles. The Nauru Agreement nations have effectively closed fishing in the 'high seas' – the pockets of international waters that lie between member states – by mandating that any vessel that fishes in their national waters must abstain from fishing in the high seas. Given that about 60 percent of tuna from the western and central Pacific ocean is caught in the exclusive economic zones of PNA members, the majority of vessels abide by the rules.

By flexing its collective muscle, the PNA 'tuna cartel' – the source of more than half of the world’s tuna cannery supply – has been able to generate significant benefits for members. Access fees or their equivalent (in benefits from domestic processing or associated “aid”) have been estimated at US$218 million in 2013 and US$91 million in 2009, after the vessel day scheme was introduced, compared with US$60 million in 1999, US$67 million in 2006, and US$71 million in 2007, before the scheme was introduced.


Read more HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

Tuesday, March 3, 2015

03/03/2015: The evolution of modern shrimp farming

by Malachi Stone, International Aquafeed

First published in International Aquafeed, January - February 2015

Although marine shrimp farming has been practised in many Asian countries for at least a hundred years, it is only in the past decade or so that it has really become an economically important industry. 


http://issuu.com/international_aquafeed/docs/iaf1501_w1/48
In the past, shrimp were viewed only as a secondary crop. Generally, fry were accidentally washed by the tide into coastal paddy fields and brackish fishponds. Trapped there, they were simply allowed to grow to a decent size then captured and sold.

The supply of fry would depend entirely on fluctuations in the wild population. No efforts were made to control predators or competitors for food and space, and there was no artificial feeding system.  

The young shrimp were thus left to fend entirely for themselves. Even the water they were living in was usually too shallow to protect them adequately from freak changes in weather conditions. For all these reasons the yields were somewhat haphazard. Even in a good year, a farmer could only expect to harvest between 100 and 300kg per hectare. 

Then the market changed. Farmers realised that the shrimp in their paddy fields were beginning to sell for more than the rice itself. So they simply converted their fields and fishponds into shrimp farms. 


Where used, modern shrimp farming techniques have addressed many of the failings of the traditional system. Wherever possible, the farmer has taken active control of the situation rather than leaving it to chance. 


http://issuu.com/international_aquafeed/docs/iaf1501_w1/48There is a greater density of shrimp in the pools, because more seawater – and thus, more fry - has been pumped in. The pools have been dug deeper, providing a more constant microclimate: the more water over the shrimps’ heads, the greater the protection from environmental fluctuations. 

One problem remains, however. Expansion of the industry is still constrained by an inconsistent supply of fry, which still depends on captures from wild stocks. So far only one species of shrimp, Penaeus chinensis, is able to complete its entire breeding cycle in captivity.


Shrimp in culture start out feeding on the algae and aquatic plants that occur naturally in their pools. However, as they get larger a supplement is usually needed. Like lobsters, they are often fed on trash fish, often mixed with rice bran. Other feeds vary from: crushed snails, mussel and clam meat, household leftovers and even large pieces of cowhide suspended in the water for them to feed on.


Read the magazine HERE.


The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

Evonik company profile

http://corporate.evonik.com/en/Pages/default.aspx

Evonik is one of the world's leading specialty chemicals companies. Profitable growth and a sustained increase in the value of the company form the heart of our strategy, which is supported by our owners, RAG-Stiftung (74.99 percent) and funds managed by CVC Capital Partners (25.01 percent). 

Our specialty chemicals activities focus on high-growth megatrends—especially health, nutrition, resource efficiency, and globalization—and our goal is to enter attractive future-oriented markets.

In 2011 Evonik’s roughly 33,000 employees generated sales of €14.5 billion and an operating result (EBITDA) of €2.8 billion. More than 70 percent of sales are generated outside Germany, providing convincing evidence that our business is global.


Visit the website HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news