Monday, September 30, 2013

Aquaculture view: The potential of animal fats as lipid sources in aquafeeds

Aquaculture view

Aquaculture view is a column in each edition of International Aquafeed magazine (IAF), written by Dominique P Bureau.

Part of the IAF editorial panel, Dom has a PhD in Nutritional Sciences from the University of Guelph, Canada.

Today he teaches various undergraduate and graduate courses on animal nutrition and agriculture at the University of Guelph. Between 2007 and 2009, he coordinated the “Paris Semester”, a study abroad program for undergraduate students at the University of Guelph.

He serves on a number of international committees, including the US National Research Council Committee on Nutrient Requirements of Fish and Shrimp.

See all of the Aquaculture view columns here.

September - October 2013

The potential of animal fats as lipid sources in aquafeeds 

For many years, most aquaculture feeds were formulated with fish oil(s) as the main lipid source. For a long period, these n-3 PUFA-rich lipid sources were competitively priced compared to other lipid sources and availability was rarely an issue. Fish oil production reached its peak at roughly 1 million metric tonnes (mmt) and demand, both from the aquaculture feed market and the pharmaceutical industry, has increased very steadily since then. The increased demand and fluctuations in production volumes have led to a volatile and expensive fish oil market. This has forced manufacturers to greatly limit inclusion of fish oil in their feed formulations and rely on a different, more economical, lipid sources.

There has been much research and exchange about the use of plant (vegetable) oils in feeds for different aquaculture species. Studies have demonstrated plant oils can be used to provide a large proportion of the total lipids of the diet, without affecting performance of the animals, as long as the nutritional requirements, including n-3 PUFA requirements, are met. With this information, feed formulators have started using plant oils widely and significant levels of plant oils are now used in a very large proportion of aquaculture feeds produced around the world. These lipids are, nevertheless, expensive commodities. Approximately 12 mmt of terrestrial animal fats are manufactured every year around the world and these lipid sources are generally more economical than plant oils. They have been staples in feed formulations for terrestrial animal feeds for many decades. Their use in aquaculture feeds has been highly limited for various reasons but they deserve more attention today. I am often struck by some of the misconceptions about the nutritive value of animal fats that are prevalent in the field of aquaculture nutrition today. I feel that some of the views need to be revised.

There is a relatively solid body of evidence showing that these lipids are safe and cost-effective lipid sources for fish feeds. Certain animal fats (e.g. poultry fat/oil) have actually found wide use with significant success in commercial salmon and trout feeds in the Americas for about two decades.

A number of early studies suggested that terrestrial animal fats were very poorly digestible to fish, notably cold water fish species, and feeds containing certain amount of animal fat did not support optimal growth performance. Some of these early studies, including a digestibility trial carried out in our fish nutrition research facilities at the University of Guelph, Canada back in the 1980s, have really made a lasting impression on many stakeholders of the industry. Numerous other studies, including several recent ones have shown that animal fats are actually very well digested and utilized by many fish species, including rainbow trout reared in cold water. While it seems clear that the apparent digestibility of lipids can be negatively correlated to the dietary inclusion level of saturated fatty acids (SFA), results from some studies do not always appear to support this conclusion.

So what is the source of discrepancy between studies?
A few years ago, my colleague Katheline Hua and I carried out a comprehensive assessment of the effect of dietary fatty acids composition, lipid level and water temperature on digestibility of lipids in fish using a nutritional modeling approach. The results from the meta-analysis of data from 16 studies with rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon indicated that variations in apparent digestibility of dietary lipid can be primarily explained by the proportion of SFA in the total fatty acids. A broken line analysis of the data from these studies suggested that SFA can be incorporated in diets at levels below 23 percent of total fatty acids without negatively affecting lipid digestibility. When SFA exceeded 23 percent of the total fatty acids, the apparent digestibility of lipids decreases by 1.5 percent for every 1 percent increase in SFA content of the diet.

The results of a multiple regression analysis of data from the same 16 studies suggested that the apparent digestibility of different types of fatty acids differ significantly and the digestibility of SFA cannot be assumed to be additive when estimating the digestible lipid content of fish feeds. The analysis suggested that monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and increased water temperature have a positive effect on the digestibility of SFA. On the basis of the results from the multiple repression analysis, we suggested the following model for predicting the digestible lipid content of fish feeds on the basis of the SFA, MUFA and PUFA content of the diet and the water temperature:
Digestible lipid content (% of diet) = 0.45 SFA - 0.08 SFA2 + 0.86 MUFA + 0.94 PUFA + 0.03 SFA*MUFA + 0.04 SFA*PUFA + 0.03 temperature*SFA.

Comparison of model prediction with data from independent studies suggested that it accurately predicted the digestible lipid content of diets containing a combination of lipid sources with varying dietary lipid content fed to rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon reared at different water temperatures. The model also accurately predicted digestible lipid content of diets for several warm and cold water fish species. We concluded that this model could be a very simple practical tool for fish feed formulators wanting to explore the cost-effectiveness of different lipid sources.

Of interest in this model (multiple regression equation) is the ‘positive’ effect of PUFA and MUFA on digestibility of SFA. The ‘synergistic effect’ of PUFA on the digestibility of SFA is a well-described phenomenon in poultry. It was demonstrated many years ago (1962 to be precise) that lipid sources rich in SFA, when used alone in the diet, are poorly digested by poultry.

However, combining equal amounts of a lipid source rich in SFA (e.g. tallow) and a lipid source rich in PUFA (e.g. soya oil) generally results in metabolizable energy (ME) value for the blended fat that is greater than the average of the two lipid sources, hence the term ‘synergistic effect’.

It is clear that animal fats generally cannot be used as the sole or major lipid source in the diet of most fish species. Feed formulators should ensure that diets are formulated to contain a sufficient amount of MUFA and PUFA to facilitate the digestion of SFA and to meet the essential fatty acid requirements of the animal. It is my experience that good quality animal fats can be used in many cases up to about 40 of total lipids in many types of fish feeds.
Agree or disagree? Any feedback? Please don't hesitate to contact me at or leave a comment below

Andrew Jackson, technical director, IFFO, the Marine Ingredients Organisation, UK

Andrew Jackson, technical director, IFFO, UK started his career working in the world of research on fish nutrition in a number of different species including trout, salmon and tilapia.
He was recruited by Unilever to work in their fish feed company and he later transferred to Marine Harvest, which was their salmon farming company. Jackson then spent nearly twenty years working for Marine Harvest in a range of different roles in both Scotland and Chile before joining IFFO in 2006.
His current role as technical director at IFFO includes responsibility for the technical area including regulatory affairs and IFFO’s Global Standard for Responsible Supply (IFFO RS).

This interview appeared in the September October 2013 edition of International Aquafeed magazine


What are IFFO’s aims?

We are a membership organisation, with producer members in many countries. In addition we have associate members who are other stakeholders including, traders, feed producers, farmers, even retailers. Our task is to support our members and their products. This includes market information, regulatory support, arranging conferences and giving advice on best industry practice. The latter issue led to IFFO working with other stakeholders, including environmental NGOs, to come up with its IFFO RS standard in 2009.

What do you consider IFFO’s greatest achievements or successes?

Under different names the organisation has been around for over 50 years and has built its reputation in three key areas. Firstly, it has huge amounts of information about global fishmeal and fish oil markets, where it is produced, how it is sold and who are the end users. Secondly, it is recognised as the only organiser of twice yearly conferences which cover all aspects of the marine ingredient industry from raw materials through to finished products. Finally, over the years IFFO has built up a reputation for its technical knowledge in many different areas and this has been added to with the success of its Responsible Supply standard.

What role can marine ingredients play in sustainable aquaculture?

First and foremost it is important that any marine ingredients used are not considered to be coming from unsustainable sources as this undermines the reputation of the resulting farmed products. So it is becoming increasingly important to farmers and feed producers that any marine ingredients used come from demonstrably well-managed fisheries.

How can fishmeal be used strategically in aquafeeds?

With decreasing inclusion levels of fishmeal in many diets, as already mentioned, it is important to make sure that the quality of the remaining fishmeal is as high as possible. Also, while it is often possible to reduce the fishmeal inclusion level in many grower diets, without seriously compromising performance, so long as care is taken to balance the essential amino acids, it is important to maintain the fishmeal level in other diets. Young fish and crustaceans have higher protein requirements than growers and also faster potential growth rates. Additionally, any growth lost in the early stages is very difficult to make up later. It therefore often pays to maintain the fishmeal level in the early diets, whilst making savings in grower diets. The same is true of broodstock diets where health status and the quality of the resulting eggs is too important to risk by cutting corners in diet formulation. 

The prospect for increasing the production of fishmeal and fish oil is limited. Do you foresee demand exceeding supply?

Potential demand has exceeded supply for some considerable time but over the last decade world fed aquaculture has doubled its output to well over 30 million tonnes while only using around 3 million tonnes of fishmeal. I see no reason why this trend will not continue. The picture for fish oil is more complicated: I do not see the growth of aquaculture being limited by the availability of fish oil, but with reducing fish oil inclusion levels, the health giving properties of some finished products, such as salmon fillets, will decrease.

Will the reintroduction of PAPs in the EU affect fishmeal and fish oil use?

My understanding is that the non-use of PAPs in Europe has less to do with the regulations and more to do with the concerns of the major retailers about the reaction of consumers to feeding land animal proteins to fish. If that is the case, then at least in the short-term, I do not see any dramatic effect coming from the change in regulations.
Will the lifting of the discard ban in the EU have an impact on fishmeal and fish oil production?
It is too early to tell if the new Common Fisheries Policy’s ban on discards will produce significant volumes for our industry. Clearly the main aim of any policy change will be to reduce the catches of unwanted fish. The details of the new CFP in this area are still to be agreed and we are watching developments with interest, but early indications are that volumes of fish for our industry are unlikely to increase significantly with the proposed changes.

How does the IFFO RS Standard help ensure responsible sourcing and production of fishmeal?

Qware of concerns in these important areas, IFFO set up a Technical Advisory Committee with a range of stakeholder members including marine environmental NGOs. Over a two-year period this group wrote what is the IFFO Global Standard for the Responsible Supply of Fishmeal and Fish Oil (IFFO RS). The standard covers what a factory must be doing to be considered responsible. This includes both the raw material sourcing (whole fish and fishery by-products) and the manufacturing practices of the applicant. To prove that a factory meets the standard the applicant must undergo a rigorous audit by a third party auditor to demonstrate that the standard is met. Last year the management of the standard was itself fully accredited to the ISO 65 standard.

New! IAF article: Understanding ammonia in aquaculture ponds

The dangers of ammonia in aquaculture ponds is well documented but practical advice on how to measure ammonia levels is not readily available. Step in Patrick Higgins of YSI, USA (part of the Xylem brand) who writes on the different equipment and methods to measure ammonia levels accurately.

Click to read the full article.

Understanding ammonia in aquaculture ponds

Enhanced by Zemanta


Bühler is a specialist and technology partner for plant and equipment and related services for processing basic foods and manufacturing highgrade materials. The group is a global market leader in the supply of flour production plants, pasta and chocolate production lines, animal feed manufacturing installations, and aluminum die casting systems. Click on the image to visit the Buhler website.

Enhanced by Zemanta

30/09/13: Booming aquaculture in Newfoundland; cage culture in Uganda; pro-farmed salmon article causes a stir

Aquaculture in Newfoundland, Canada is booming. In fact, some people in Harbour Breton say it's responsible for saving their towns from possible resettlement.

However, it's not all going swimmingly. Gray Aqua is struggling to keep afloat after filing for bankruptcy protection earlier this year and Cooke Aquaculture has also had to deal with ISA outbreaks.

So, can this boom continue or is there a new problem round the corner?
Watch the video...

Ugandan authorities are encouraging fishermen to switch to aquaculture to replenish declining fish stocks.

Fish is a top export for the country but Lake Victoria's fish stocks have been falling for the past decade due to overfishing.

The government has enlisted the help of Chinese experts to train fishermen how to raise fish in cages.

While other countries have been experimenting with cage culture but Uganda is the first to want to implement it on a large scale.

A pro-farmed salmon article appeared in the Washington Post over the weekend.

The writer argues that advances in aquaculture are leading to increasingly eco-friendly salmon which may help shake off farmed salmon's bad reputation with consumers.

The article explores ways in which farmers have cleaned up their act including improved feed, disease control and minimising escapees.

However, the article has not been warmly received on all fronts. Commenting on the Huffington Post website, Cheers actor, Ted Danson, said that article is misleading and farmed salmon are not a viable alternative to wild fish.

What do you think?

, Boat trip on Lake Victoria: Fisherman chasin...
Boat trip on Lake Victoria: Fisherman chasing fish into the nets of his friends (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Enhanced by Zemanta

Event: 6th Algae World Asia comes to Bangkok this October to showcase new vistas

The 6th Algae World Asia, to be held in Bangkok, Thailand on October 28-29, 2013, will examine prospects and challenges of high performance chemicals as well as fuels from algae.

Value addition in Algae chain has now moved beyond bio fuels to cover a host of high value products for a wide range of applications. Rapid strides in technologies that enable conversion to a wide variety of therapeutic products, proteins, nutrients, colorants and plastics have opened up immense growth opportunities in global algae business. 

CMT’s 6th Algae World Asia brings together leading experts and industry players in algae value chain, to identify, assess, thus evaluate prospects and challenges of high performance chemicals as well as fuels from algae.

Dr Jason Pyle of Triton Health and Nutrition will assess commercial models for algae based protein manufacture while Dr Motonari Shibakami (AIST) will analyse breakthroughs in bioplastics from algae. Expert briefings on Dunaliella’s Glycerol production by Professor Ami Ben Amotz, commercial production of Astaxanthin by Dr Oran Ayalon from AlgaTechnologies and Tony Dowd from Asta Supreme, form the backdrop of new avenues in high value products from algae. Novel cosmetic products from algae by Heliae Development LLC and omega 3 enriched oil from algae by Fermentalg SA will provide techno economic insights into these new opportunities.

On the technology front the 6th Algae World Asia also examines production of algae oil using Hydro Thermal Liquefaction (HTL) technology by Loxley Public Co. Ltd., Biomass conversion technologies by NXT Fuels, Marine bioenergy project, and Korea’s governmental project on developing a novel technology for large-scale microalgal cultures in ocean. The conference also assesses advances in Indonesian and Indian algae based projects.

Specially added to the agenda this year is a 2 hour exclusive visit to Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research (TISTR) Technopolis to tour TISTR's Algal R&D facilities including Algal Culture Collection, PBRs and outdoor cultivation systems. The site visit is optional and open for reservations to registered delegates only.

For queries and registration matters, telephone Ms Huiyan on 65 6346 9113.
More information...

6th Algae World Asia
Enhanced by Zemanta

Friday, September 27, 2013

Video: Salmon farming in Chile - Australis

Continuing the salmon theme on the blog today, we look at salmon farming in Chile. This video focuses on Australis.

You can also find the videos we've posted on the blog on our new YouTube channel.


Biomin is dedicated to finding innovative, trend-setting solutions that
empower our customers to master existing and future challenges in animal nutrition
– the natural way. The application of scientific know-how and expertise, based
on an in-depth understanding of our customer’s needs and concerns, enables us to
deliver solutions that support animal health, optimise performance and production
efficiency. Click on the image to visit the Biomin website.

Enhanced by Zemanta

New! IAF article: Expert Topic: Salmon

The expert topic this issue is salmon. This species is a favourite on dinner plates across the world so we look at how salmon is farmed and fed from Iceland to Tasmania and Scotland to New Zealand (and a few other places in between).

We also report on the formation of the Global Salmon Initiative with exclusive comment from Ygnve Myhre, CEO, Salmar, and Chris Ninnes of the Aquaculture Stewardship Council.
Click to read the full section of articles.

Expert Topic: Salmon

Interested in salmon? Why not revisit our expert topic on salmon from November/December 2012.
Enhanced by Zemanta

27/09/13: Salmon special: Cooke Aquaculture escape update; feed limits put salmon at risk; understanding the life cycle of sea lice

Today we round up the most importnat salmon stories from around the world.

Salmon farming in Canada is a controversial issue so it is not a surprise to hear that the recent escape at a Cooke Aquaculture facility in Heritage Bay, Newfoundland, has become a political issue.

Jim Bennett, Liberal Critic for the Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture and the Department of Education, has raised his concerns about the incident in a letter to Fisheries and Oceans Canada

Bennett claims that the number is escapees in closer to 50,000 rather than the 20,000 reported by Cooke Aquaculture. If this is true, the escape would be the largest of salmon in Canada since 1999.

He also writes about the potential danger of interbreeding and the spread of disease.

In a statement on its website from September 24, 2013, Cooke Aquaculture does not mention how many fish escaped.

However, the CBC Fisheries Broadcast spoke to Nell Halse, vice president communications at Cooke Aquaculture, about the escape. Halse explains how the incident happened and estimates that between 10,000-20,000 fish escaped. 

The plan now is to try and capture as many of the salmon as possible. However, fishing regulations mean that the company cannot simply go out in boats to try and fish for salmon.

Addressing the question of dangers to wild populations, Halse says that the fish not an invasive species and she believes they will not be a threat.

Feed limits put salmon at risk according to Grant Rosewarne, chief executive  New Zealand King Salmon.

The company is asking for urgent action on its application to the Marlborough District Council to lift feed limits at its Clay Point fish farm in Tory Channel. 

Unless they can use more pellets at Clay Point from October to December they will have to starve fish, cull fish or harvest them too small for the market. 

Rosewarne said the fish need more feed because they are bigger than usual this season and there are greater numbers of fish.

News that sea lice go through various larval stages before reaching adulthood could affect how the pest is treated in salmon.

New results from the Institute of Marine Research, Norway have shown that the salmon louse has seven larval stages before it develops into an adult. Previously, nine larval stages have been described.

For the aquaculture industry, understanding the life cycle and the number of molts, is important because some of the compounds that can be used against salmon lice infestation are inhibitors of the molting process.
Salmon louse. From top: 1. Mature female with ...
Salmon louse. From top: 1. Mature female with egg strings. 2. Mature female without eggstings. 3. Immature louse. Picture taken at Norwegian Aquaculture Center, Brønnøy, Norway ‪Norsk (bokmål)‬: Lakselus. Øverst: Voksen hunn med eggstrenger. I midten: Voksen hunn uten eggstrenger. Nederst: Ung lus. Bilde tatt på Norsk Havbrukssenter, Brønnøy (Photo credit: Wikipedia)


Enhanced by Zemanta

Thursday, September 26, 2013

New! IAF article: Marine algal polysaccharides: a new option for immune stimulation

In the second algae feature in this month’s issues, the team from Olmix write on studies into the suitability of marine algal polysaccharides in immune stimulation in farmed animals.

Nowadays, all animal production is concerned with vaccination. This is an essential technique for the protection of livestock health which, however, entails significant costs for stock breeders. Maximizing the efficiency and profitability of prophylactic vaccination strategies is therefore a major stake. To achieve this, new avenues are constantly explored. One of these concerns is the use of new molecules extracted from seaweeds to help optimize the stimulation of the natural defences of the body and its response to vaccination strategies.

Click to read the full article.

Marine algal polysaccharides: a new option for immune stimulation
Read Nathan Atkinson’s article on the potential of microalgae meals in compound feeds for aquaculture also in the September/October 2013 issue.


The Andritz Group is a global market leader in the supply of plants, equipment, and services for hydropower stations, the pulp and paper industry, for solid/liquid separation in the municipal and industrial sectors, the steel industry, as well as for the production of animal feed and biomass pellets. Click on the image to visit the Andritz website.

26/09/13: Salmon escape in Canada; meeting the demand for bluefin tuna; migrant workers in Thailand's farmed shrimp industry

As many as 20,000 salmon have escaped from a Cooke Aquaculture farm in Hertimage Bay, Canada after storms currents overturned a cage.

Cod fishermen have reported catching some of the salmon and have found dead fish along the shoreline. 

Cooke Aquaculture told the Canadian broadcaster, CBA, that the fish do not pose a risk to the local environment.

The demand for bluefin tuna is on the rise putting the pressure on wild stocks. Unfortunately, attempts for farm the fish have proved difficult on a commercial scale. 

However, traders in Japan have not been put off and are keen to meet the growing consumer demand with aquaculture.

Toyo Reizo Co., an affiliate in the Mitsubishi Corp. group, has purchased tuna fry, which were artificially hatched by Kinki University.

The company plans to begin shipment of its Tuna Princess brand this month and estimates it will ship 30 tons of the tuna this fiscal year.

This film by the Environmental Justice Foundation (EFJ) explores the use of migrant workers in Thailand's farmed shrimp industry.

The country is the world's largest exporter of farmed shrimp and business is booming.

Migrant workers account for a staggering 90 percent of the shrimp workforce. However, strict immigration laws means that many of these workers are in the country illegally. 

The film investigates the treatment of these workers, many of whom are trafficked and face arduous journeys, and even armed robbery, before enduring abusive conditions in shrimp processing factories. 

English: Bluefin tuna.
English: Bluefin tuna. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Enhanced by Zemanta

Wednesday, September 25, 2013

New! IAF article: The potential of microalgae meals in compound feeds for aquaculture

Microalgae has attracted much attention as a potential aquafeed ingredient so we thought we’d take a closer look. One of Simon Davies’ MSc Sustainable Aquaculture Systems students, Nathan Atkinson, weighs up the potential of microalgae meals in compound feeds for aquaculture.

Click to read the full article.

The potential of microalgae meals in compound feeds for aquaculture

Enhanced by Zemanta

25/09/13: Breakthourgh in octopus aquaculture; combined agriculture; Nofima's R&D course

Aquaculturists have struggled with octopus aquaculture but one company has made a breakthrough and it's all down to diet.

Mayab Molluscks, based on the Yucatan coast of Mexico have managed to successfully rear octopi from eggs.

At first, the octopi were given live feeds but the graduated onto a mix of crab and shrimp.

The potential food security benefits of combining aquaculture with other farming is being explored by the West and Central African Council for Agricultural Research and Development (WECARD) and University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

In a pilot project, the team used poultry or pig waste to raise maggots to supplement fish feeding and using a stocked fish pond to cultivate lowland rice.

Dr Kolawole Ajani, project coordinator, University of Ibadan, told the Nigerian Tribune that, “the aims of the project include developing viable and sustainable aquaculture with rice and poultry for rural farmers; to ensure integration of livelihood, that is, poultry, piggery, rice and fish farming; to eradicate hunger among small scale farmers”.

Nofima is collaborating with the University of Tromsø to run a course on management of R&D.

On one hand, the course aims to get the seafood companies to work more strategically with research, development and innovation. On the other hand, it aims to help develop closer contact and interaction between research, industry and funding agencies.

The target group is small and medium-sized seafood companies. The course is particularly aimed at managers, mid-level managers and others who have or are intended to have responsibility for research, development and innovation.

“The objective is to improve the companies’ ability to run their own R&D activities, and the course will also help to raise the industry’s expertise in commissioning research, so that research funding is spent on research that is even better adapted to meet the industry’s needs,” said Audun Iversen from the food research institute Nofima.
More information...
Rice grains
Rice grains (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Enhanced by Zemanta


Novus International, Inc. creates Health through Nutrition products for livestock, pets and people.
Novus has employees working in over 90 countries, serving more than 2,500 customers worldwide. Based in St. Charles, Missouri, Novus has facilities including corporate offices, research and development laboratories and manufacturing operations in more than 35 countries, as well as smaller offices with field staff in an additional 60 countries. Click on the image to visit the Novus website.

Enhanced by Zemanta

Event: Asian Pacific Aquaculture

“Positioning for Profit" is the theme of the Asian Pacific Aquaculture Conference and Trade Show scheduled from December 10-13, 2013 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The conference emphasizes the need for the whole industry to take a more strategic approach to expansion.

Plenary speakers 
There will be two plenary speakers who will both bring their expertise to the show.
Dr Pham Anh Tuan has been deputy director general at the Directorate of Fisheries (D-FISH) of the Ministry of Agriculture & Rural Development (MARD) in Hanoi since March 2010. Dr Pham Anh Tuan is an aquaculture expert in various fields such as Aquaculture extension, project design & management, development of aquaculture techniques suited to varying geographic and socioeconomic conditions, aquaculture extension and development as a component of integrated rural development. Dr Pham Anh Tuan has experience in freshwater species such as grass carp, Chinese carp, tilapia, etc. especially on the reproduction cycles and techniques.

Dr Pham Anh Tuan
Dr David Hughes, the second plenary speaker, is emeritus professor of Food Marketing at Imperial College London, and visiting professor at the University of Kent Business School and at the Royal Agricultural College, UK. David is a much sought-after speaker at international conferences and seminars on global food industry issues, particularly consumer trends, and is a strong proponent of building vertical alliances between key chain members in the food industry  - farmers, life science and input companies, ingredient firms, food and beverage manufacturers, retailers and food service.
Dr David Hughes
A range of sessions
Session titles include: husbandry environment, hatchery genetics, molluscs, IMTA, biofloc, aquaponics, lobsters, economics & management, crustacean health, seahorses, crustacean husbandry, recirculation systems, tilapia, tuna, cobia, yellowtail, pangasius, seabass, algae, sustainable development, etc.

Oyster Symposium
The 5th International Oyster Symposium is joining forces with the conference ensuring that there will be an exciting stream of oyster expertise engaging the great work done in recent years which has seen production in Northern Vietnam climb to over 7,000 mt in just a five-year period.

International exhibitors
Over 75 international exhibitors (Asia, America, Europe and Australia represented) and many more local suppliers will demonstrate their products and services at the APA13 exhibition. There are still some booths available as the organization decided to expand the trade space.

But that's not all...
‘Special’ organised sessions during APA13. Uni-President, the APA13 Gold sponsor is organising a special ‘disease on shrimp’ session for producers while Biomin, the APA13 Silver sponsor organises a ‘feeding for profit’ session.  Evonik sponsors the ‘Utilization of amino acids in aquaculture. Pentair sponsors the Aquaponics session. Dabomb sponsors the ‘alternative proteins of aquafeed’ session. USSEC sponsors the ‘Soy utilization in Aquaculture’ session and Pharmaq sponsors the ‘Health management’ session.

The WAS Premier sponsors Novus, Tyson and Alltech will promote their products and services at the APA13 trade show and conference. Novus sponsors the ‘finfish and shrimp nutrition’ session while Alltech the ‘lipids and functional ingredients’ session. Tyson will be the exclusive ‘President reception’ sponsor at APA13 which will be held on December 12, 2013.

There will be several workshop organised just prior to APA13. The Aquaculture Engineering Society workshop ‘Biofloc Technology’ on December 9-10, 2013 focuses on Bioflocs, Integrated Aquaculture and Disease Prevention. Many more workshops being organised by the APA13 exhibitors are on invitation only.

Some very special tours will be set up by the Vietnamese Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. One tour to Cat Ba and Ha Long will include a visit to the National Marine Broodstock Center and to the Ban Sen Oyster Farm. A second tour includes the visit of several fish cages while the tour to Ben Tre includes the visit of a clam and a shrimp farm and a shrimp hatchery and processing unit.

More information on or in Vietnamese on
For trade show info:

Look out for a full preview of the event in the next issue of International Aquafeed magazine.

Enhanced by Zemanta

Tuesday, September 24, 2013

24/09/13: Salmon stress; climate change and fish farming; addressing sustainability in aquaculture

Stress might be the reason why losses is salmon aquaculture are high and why large numbers of  salmon do not return to their breeding ground to spawn, according to research by Uni Research AS.

The team researched new ways to evaluate salmon's mental robustness, their ability to learn and react to a new environment.

They found that salmon exposed to mild chronic stressors such as being transferred into new tanks can limit their ability to deal with new situations.

It's hoped that being able to identify what causes salmon stress will help improve management to 

An increase in aquaculture and marine protected areas could help Pacific countries in the Coral Triangle adapt to climate change according to a report by the Asian Development Bank and the International Food Policy Research Institute.

The report found that domestic fish production is likely to be slow until 2050 due to climate change.

It also warns that Pacific coral triangle countries could become net importers of fish unless there are significant adaptation measures.

The findings were launched at a workshop assessing development strategies in response to climate change in Vanuatu.

Aquaculture often comes under fire for its sustainability credentials so it is great to find an article which looks at ways the industry is addressing the issue.

This article on GreenBiz highlights five different projects or companies that are cleaning up fish farming.

They include innovative technology, new species and industry-led sustainability drive. Take a look.

English: Illustration of various salmon
English: Illustration of various salmon (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Enhanced by Zemanta

New! IAF article: Grinding equipment for aquafeeds

The first article form the September/October 2013 issue of International Aquafeed Joyce Li of Amisy, China looks at the importance of grinding equipment in aquafeed production for different fish and crustaceans.

Click to read the full article.

Grinding equipment for aquafeeds

You can also read the full issue online for free.


Norel makes a range of products for aquaculture species including pellet binders, organic acids, organic minerals and flavours. Click on the image to visit the Norel website.

Salmon farmers celebrate British Columbian aquaculture

Salmon farmers in British Columbia, Canada have been celebrating Aquaculture Awareness Week with a host of activities on Vancouver Island.

The annual event is aimed at raising awareness of the industry and also a chance to thank the thousands of hard-working men and women who make the industry a success.

“Our members work every day to contribute to their communities – and yet, there are many things people don’t know about aquaculture,” said Mary Ellen Walling, executive director, BC Salmon Farmers Association (BCSFA). “Our goal during this week each year is to focus on building the understanding and pride in one of the key drivers for rural and coastal communities in BC.”

Campbell River and Port Hardy councils have approved proclamations for Aquaculture Awareness Week September 23-27, 2013, following requests by the BCSFA. The proclamations recognise the important role that aquaculture – particularly salmon farming – plays in both communities and the BCSFA’s goal of better educating the public about their members’ operations and opportunities.

“As the public awareness aspect of Aquaculture Awareness Week has grown and changed over the years, this week has also evolved into a celebration of the contributions of those who work in our industry and the work they do to support the communities they live in,” said Walling.

“Volunteering with search and rescue, raising money for cancer research and supporting the local food bank are just some of the activities our workers are proud to take part in. Aquaculture Awareness Week affords the industry a chance to recognise those employees for that hard work and a chance to say thank-you.”

A salmon farm which holds yearlings for up to ...
A salmon farm which holds yearlings for up to two years. Many hold broodstock for even longer in these conditions to help ensure large, sexually mature adults. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Enhanced by Zemanta

Monday, September 23, 2013

23/09/13: Aqua museum for Kerela; opposition to New Zealand geoduck farm; dam fish farming in Eritrea

Mala in Kerala, India is to get an aqua museum.

Set up by the Agency for Development of Aquaculture, Kerala (ADAK), the museum will serve as a educational facility as well a tourist attraction.

The project aims to develop the Poyya Fish Farm into a model traditional fishing village, which will provide an overview of the significant aspects of inland fisheries.

Plans for a geoduck farm off Nelson Island, New Zealand have received strong opposition from existing coastal users.

The Sunshine Coast Regional District (SCRD) has asked for one of Emerald Sea Farms to find “a different remote location” for its shellfish farm. 

Emerald Sea Farms has reapplied for two sites on the island for geoduck farming, with one of the sites fronting the SCRD’s Harry Roberts Park.

SCRD believe that the proposed site will interfere with boat traffic and the area's potential as a forage fish spawning ground.

Fish farming in the dams of at Gash-Barka region, Eritrea is going well according to Dejen Foto, head of fish farming in the Marine Resources Ministry.

Fish farming at the dams of Gerset, Fanko-Rawi, Fanko-Tsimu'e and Bademit uses water cumulated in the dams for fish farming in addition to irrigation for farming.

English: Fish Farming at Miabhaig These shelte...
English: Fish Farming at Miabhaig These sheltered waters lend themselves to fish farming. The houses in the distance are at Uigen. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Enhanced by Zemanta

Friday, September 20, 2013

20/9/13: Dengue-eliminating fish; illicit fish farms; Trinidad aquaculture investment

Fish have been enlisted by the Punjab government in an unlikely new front of India’s war on dengue fever.

Authorities believe that fish from the Rawal Dam hatchery can solve the rising number of cases in Rawalpindi without the use of anti-mosquito chemicals. They’ve been released into ponds and fountains in the hope that they eat larvae from the mosquitoes that carry the virus.

Feed residue from illicit fish farms is threatening the operation of a power station near Manila, reports Philippines news organ The Inquirer.

The coal-fired plant, largest in the Philippines, says fish feed is entering its water intake and jeopardizing the area’s electricity supply. Agricultural authorities say fish farmers should keep their cages 400m away from the plant perimeter at all times, but currently many are at a quarter of that distance.

In 2008-9 the plant was forced to shut down after typhoon damage allowed fish to escape their cages and swim into the cooling system.

Aquaculture in Trinidad and Tobago will receive a boost after its government announced a $3.6m investment in the industry.

The money will be spent on new farms and technology, as well as research and training for the fish farmers of the Caribbean islands. Food Production Minister Devant Maharaj hopes the investment bring some commercial clout to aquaculture in his country.

“Approximately 75 per cent of fish farmers can be considered to be subsistence or backyard farmers who, for a number of reasons, are unable to achieve economies of scale and hence commercial and economic viability,” said Maharaj.
Read more …

Farmed tilapia are being transported to the Sea of Galilee in a bid to replenish its fish population, reports the Times of Israel.

The continuing project, which this year will introduce approximately one million of the fish to the lake, also aims to balance its ecosystem as the tilapia will filter out toxins produced by seaweed.

The dengue fever-carrying Aedes aegypti mosquito [photo credit: Wikipedia]

Thursday, September 19, 2013


Muyang's activities cover design, development, fabrication and installation of the machinery within feed manufacturing, grain milling, environment protection, food processing, bulk solids handling and storage, steel structure building as well as industrial automation. Click on image to visit company website.

19/09/2013: Combating illegal fishing in Ghana; ornamental fish cultivation in Thailand; shrimp pathologist to be honored at GOAL 2013

A new body to combat illegal fishing activities has been set up in the Greater Accra region of Ghana, West Africa. 

The new body will control, monitor and provide surveillance of every fishing operation within Ghana’s fishery waters. 

The move comes after Nayon Bilijo, minister of Fisheries and Aquaculture Development, pointed out that Ghana as well as other countries in the West-Central Gulf area, have been targeted by local and foreign fishing groups and vessels, consequently destroying indigenous fish stocks and putting local communities in a position of poverty and vulnerability.

According to Indonesian news agency ANTARA, Thailand is keen to learn marine ornamental fish cultivation from Indonesia.

Suseno Sukoyono, head of the human resources development agency at the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, said several of Thailand's fisheries research delegations recently visited Indonesia in the hope of learning more about the country's marine ornamental fish farming.

The Global Aquaculture Alliance (GAA) has announced that Dr. Donald Lightner, renowned shrimp pathologist will be presented with a Lifetime Achievement Award at its GOAL 2013 conference which takes place from 7th - 10th October 2013 in Paris, France. 

Dr. Lightner is a shrimp and finfish pathologist at the University of Arizona’s School of Animal and Comparative Biomedical Sciences, USA. Here he runs the Aquaculture Pathology Diagnostic Laboratory, a reference laboratory for shrimp diseases.

English: Location of Greater Accra region in Ghana
English: Location of Greater Accra region in Ghana (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Enhanced by Zemanta

Event: Latin American & Caribbean Aquaculture LAQUA 2013

The Latin American & Caribbean Chapter of the WAS presents a new event - LAQUA - at the Hotel Sonesta, Villavicencio, Colombia from 8th - 11th October 2013. 

Organised in conjuntion with the congreso n Native Fishes, LAQUA will cover all aspects of South American Aquaculture. The Local Tilapia producers association is also organising a 3 day forum for their members in Villavicencio for three days.

The Conference will see a flood of fish farmers, entrepreneurs and experts of Latin American and world aquaculture. The event will allow participants to share scientific advances, latest technologies, research results as well as obtain an overview of the challenges facing Latin American aquaculture. 

For more information on the exhibition and sponsorship contact:

English: Political map of South America
English: Political map of South America (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Enhanced by Zemanta