Thursday, October 19, 2017

20/10/2017: Shrimp farming in India

by Dr B Laxmappa, India

Shrimp farming is a multi-billion dollar industry contributing a major income to several countries in Asia and South America

India as the second largest country in aquaculture production in the World, the share of brackish-water sector includes culture of shrimp varieties mainly, the native giant tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon and exotic white-leg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Today, L. vannamei is the most extensively farmed crustacean species in the World.

Culture Status
Brackish-water aquaculture in India is concentrated around the giant tiger prawn (P. monodon) as the single most important species. Recently, the culture of exotic, white-leg shrimp, L. vannamei, however, has attracted the farmers’ attention because of its fast growth, low incidence of native diseases, availability of Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) domesticated strains and culture feasibility in wide salinity range.

With the production levels of 10–12 tonnes/ha/crop of three to four months’ duration, the production of this species has reached to a level of 406,044 tonnes during 2015–16. Very recently, L. vannamei culture is also started in freshwater ponds particularly in Telangana State and some other states in India by the stocking of PLs acclimatising to zero ppt salinity at hatchery level. The culture and production level is encouraging.

Brackish water aquaculture is mainly concentrated on the coasts of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Orissa and West Bengal in India. With regards to the market, while the main areas of consumption for freshwater fish are in West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and northeastern India. Cultured brackish water shrimps are destined mainly for export.

Among the coastal states, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh is the largest producer of P. monodon and L. vannamei shrimp respectively in the country during the year 2015-16. Today L. vannamei is the largest cultured shrimp in terms of production and productivity in India.

Andhra Pradesh tops in area under culture and production followed by Tamil Nadu way behind (Table: 1 & 2). The commercial farming of tiger shrimp declined gradually and L. vennamei shrimp started increasing significantly from the year 2010-11 (Table: 3 & Image).

Disease outbreaks
With the development of shrimp culture practice from traditional form to modern intensive culture practice, the complexity of diseases has been equally magnified in India.

The frequent outbreaks of diseases such as White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), Black Gill Disease (BGD), Running Mortality Syndrome (RMS), Loose Shell Syndrome (LSS), White Feacal Syndrome (WFS), White Muscle Disease (WMD) and Infectious Hypodermal and Haematopoietic Necrosis (IHHN) in shrimps causing economic loss to the aquaculture industry.

Farmers are losing 15-25 percent of their investment due to these diseases in every crop in the season. Shrimp aquaculture industry has experienced severe setbacks due to devastating viral diseases.

L. vannamei is an exotic species and culturing both in freshwater and saline waters in the country. The viral outbreaks are minimal in low saline waters compared to the high saline waters with the best management practices.

Read the full article, HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

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